1. Electric car high voltage components
High-voltage components are mainly concentrated on the exterior of the monolithic body. Except for a few hybrid car power batteries installed at the rear of the car, most car power batteries, inverters, etc. are arranged outside the passenger compartment, and the high-voltage wires are also arranged along the outside of the chassis. High-voltage components have obvious orange marks, or high-voltage marks are pasted on prominent positions of components.
The high-voltage components of pure electric cars are mainly concentrated in the drive system, air conditioning and heating system, charging system, power supply system, etc., as shown in Figure 1.
① Drive system: including power battery and three-phase motor, as well as motor controller and inverter.
②Air conditioning and heating system: including high-voltage electric-driven compressor and high-voltage PTC heater.
③ Charging system: including car charger and charging interface.
④ Power system: mainly power battery and DC/DC converter.
⑤ Wires for connecting high-voltage components: belonging to high-voltage components, these connecting wires can be divided into five sections.
a. Power battery high-voltage cable: the connecting cable between the power battery and the high-voltage box.
b. Motor controller cable: the connection cable between the high voltage box and the motor controller.
c. Fast charging harness: the connecting harness between the fast charging port and the high-voltage box.
d. Slow charging harness: the connecting harness between the slow charging port and the car charger.
e. High-voltage accessory wiring harness High-voltage wiring harness assembly: the connection harness between the high-voltage box to the DC/DC converter, the on-board charger, the air-conditioning compressor, and the adjusting PTC. Figure 2 shows the high-voltage accessory wiring harness assembly of the BAIC EV200 electric car.
2. Regulations for high voltage operation of electric cars
① If employees have not received high-voltage safety awareness training, they are not allowed to perform operations on electric cars.
② If the employee’s work on the car is limited to operation or customer consultation, such as enabling the speed limit of winter tires or explaining the cab management and data system (COMAND), high-voltage safety awareness training is not necessary. In addition, simply driving the car does not require high-voltage safety awareness training.
③ If employees perform tasks other than operating, explaining or simply driving the car on the car, be sure to conduct high-voltage safety awareness training. Even opening the hood, such as cleaning the engine or adding windscreen washer fluid, requires high-pressure safety awareness training.
④ If you do not have the qualifications for high-voltage operation and high-voltage products, employees are not allowed to work on the high-voltage network. Failure to observe the relevant precautions can lead to serious consequences.
⑤ Non-electrical technical professionals who have received high-voltage safety awareness training can perform operations outside the high-voltage system.
⑥Automotive technicians, electrical technicians, and mechanical and electronic engineers who have received additional qualifications (high-voltage qualifications and high-voltage product training) can perform operations on high-voltage systems.