Graphene battery is a new energy battery developed by using the characteristics of rapid and massive shuttle movement of lithium ions between the graphene surface and electrodes. This new battery can compress several hours of charging time to less than 1 minute. Analysts believe that the industrialization of 1min fast-charging graphene batteries in the future will bring about changes in the battery industry, which will also promote the innovation of the new energy automobile industry.
The current research on graphene is generally divided into two aspects: one is to apply to traditional lithium batteries, the purpose is to improve and enhance the performance of lithium batteries, this type of battery will not have a disruptive impact; the other is to create a new system based on graphene The battery, it is a brand-new series, is subversive in performance, called “super battery”. Therefore, it can be considered that the graphene battery developed at present still belongs to the lithium battery series.
The microstructure of graphene material is a network structure composed of carbon atoms (see Figure 1). Because of the extreme thickness (the thickness of only one layer of atoms), the movement of cations is very limited. At the same time, because of its network structure, electrode materials made of graphene also have sufficient pores. Using graphene as the anode material of the battery, its charge/discharge speed will exceed 10 times that of lithium batteries.
The study found that connecting 6 graphene circuits in series and placing them in a copper oxide solution can generate the required 2v voltage, as shown in Figure 2.
The explanation of professionals is that copper ions have a double positive charge, and the velocity of passing through the solution is about 300m/s. Because the solution has a certain amount of thermal energy at room temperature, it causes the copper ions to move at a high speed. When the copper ion violently crashes into the graphene ribbon, the collision will generate enough energy to cause the electrons that are not in situ to leave the graphene. There are two options for electrons: they can leave the graphene ribbon and combine with copper ions; they can also pass through the graphene and enter the circuit. Flowing electrons are faster in graphene than it can pass through the solution, so electrons will naturally choose to pass through the circuit.
According to reports, the Spanish Graphenano company (a company that produces graphene on an industrial scale) has collaborated with the University of Cordoba in Spain to develop the first graphene polymer battery that has three times the power storage capacity of the best products of its kind on the market. An electric car powered by this battery can travel up to 1000km, and its charging time is less than 8 minutes. Although this battery has various excellent properties, its cost is not high. The relevant person in charge of Graphenano said that the cost of this battery will be 77% lower than that of a battery pack, which is completely within the consumer’s range. In addition, in the fields of automotive fuel cells, graphite is also expected to bring revolutionary progress.
In December 2014, American electric car manufacturer Tesla released an upgraded version of the first-generation model Roadster, which was discontinued two years ago. The driving range reached 644km, which was 60% higher than the original version. Advances in battery technology have improved the performance of Tesla products. Previously, the Roadster had a driving range of 393km. Tesla CEO Musk said that Tesla’s high-performance graphene battery has increased by nearly 70% compared to the current capacity.